Infection and Immunity

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a severe complication among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although hospital-acquired bacterial pathogens, often multidrug resistant, are the most frequent cause, non-bacterial atypical and opportunistic agents traditionally associated with immunocompromise are increasingly recognized. We describe ventilator-associated pneumonia...
(Vol 14 p 24-28, Infection and Immunity: 17 September 2014)
The case of a young man who presented in the emergency department complaining of sudden onset of cough, fever and haemoptysis is described. Chest ultrasonography rapidly diagnosed an acute respiratory distress syndrome picture, which was confirmed on computed tomography. This allowed prompt management of the patient. Blood cultures yielded Streptococcus pyogenes and...
(Vol 14 p 1-5, Critical care; Emergency medicine; Infection and immunity: 29 March 2014)
We report a case of an 85-year-old lady with repeated hospital admissions secondary to presumed urosepsis with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Chest radiographs during the final admission had changed dramatically and computed tomography scan of the aorta confirmed mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm.
(Vol 12 p 27-31, Emergency Medicine; Infection and immunity; Vascular surgery: 6 August 2012)
This case report describes a young man in his early 20s who was found to have synchronous adenocarcinoma of the colon and abdominal tuberculosis. This is a rare finding and it is discussed whether a dampened immune response by the cancer allowed a latent tuberculosis infection to become active or vice versa.
(Vol 11 p 103-106, Colorectal surgery; General surgery; Infection and Immunity; Thoracic medicine: 9 December 2011)
Febrile illness has a broad differential diagnosis, particularly among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Infectious complications of immunodeficiency must always be high on this differential, but clinicians must also consider HIV-associated malignancies as an explanation for fever in this population. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with...
(Vol 11 p 34-36, Critical Care; Infection and Immunity; Oncology; Virology: 6 April 2011)
An 80-year-old lady with abdominal pain had a perforated terminal ileum at laparotomy 2 weeks after treatment for Campylobacter jejuni infective colitis. Histology of the excised bowel revealed transmucosal inflammation but no dysplasia or malignancy. Cases of bowel perforation secondary to Campylobacter are more common in children and HIV-positive individuals.
(Vol 11 p 17-19, General Surgery; Infection and Immunity: 26 March 2011)
We report a case of East African trypanosomiasis in a 26-year-old traveler returning from Tanzania, including a series of pictures of the progression of the inoculation chancre. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense-specific DNA was detected in the blood until 8 days after treatment. We hypothesize that the previously observed suramin toxicity may be an immunological response to...
(Vol 10 p 12-16, Infection and Immunity: 26 March 2011)
A case of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) meningoencephalitis in a 74-year-old white man with rheumatoid arthritis is reported. The potential predisposing factors for EBV meningoencephalitis, the diagnostic approach and the management highlighted by this case are discussed.
(Vol 9 p 49-53, Infection and immunity; Neurology; Rheumatology: 31 December 2009)
We report on an 81-year-old male with bilateral septic arthritis of the knee joints, who was treated with multiple joint washouts and intravenous antibiotics. As far as we know, there has been no case report in the English literature, on bilateral septic arthritis of the knee secondary to group G β-haemolytic streptococcal endocarditis.
(Vol 8 p 28-30, Cardiology; Microbiology; Orthopaedic Surgery; Infection and Immunity: 29 September 2008)
A 20-year-old woman was admitted with a short history of high fever, rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, vaginal discharge and hypotension. Whilst toxic shock syndrome was considered, no gynaecological source of infection was found. Subsequent isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from a cutaneous blister led to confirmation of the diagnosis.
(Vol 8 p 25-27, Infection and Immunity: 29 September 2008)
We report the case of a woman from sub-Saharan Africa who presented with pyrexia, pulmonary lesions and a urinary tract infection (UTI). She was found to have multiple infections, i.e. Salmonella bovis bacteraemia, Escherichia coli UTI, and pulmonary nocardiosis. In the presence of lymphopaenia, a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody test was performed and was...
(Vol 3 p 31-34, Infection and Immunity; Respiratory Medicine: February 2004)
We report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) in a previously fit 48-year-old man who subsequently developed Crohn's disease. We discuss the potential predisposing factors for pulmonary MAI; the diagnostic uncertainties in this particular case; the relationship between pulmonary MAI and Crohn's disease; and the difficulties in management that are...
(Vol 2 p 24-28, Respiratory Medicine; Gastroenterology; Infection: May 2002)
An immunocompromised woman developed progressive respiratory symptoms followed by signs of embolism in the pulmonary artery and great vessels. MRI of the chest was able to demonstrate the lung cavitation, as well as demonstrating vascular invasion, suggesting a diagnosis of mucormycosis, an opportunistic fungal infection.
(Vol 2 p 8-10, Infection and Immunity: January 2002)


Frank Cross
Consultant Vascular and General Surgeon
The London Clinic, UK


Neil Barnes
Consultant Physician
Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK
Ali Jawad
Professor of Rheumatology
Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK

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